Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine phosphate dose

Indications and dose

So how often do infectious-disease drugs that enter Phase 2 studies reach the market? An analysis by the Biotechnology Industry Organization says they worked out only That means that three-quarters of the time, medicines against infectious disease that looked promising in small studies either were ineffective or had side effects that made them unusable.

It goes to one of the big truths about how doctors, eager to see a new drug succeed, can subconsciously lie to themselves with clinical studies: To be trustworthy, these studies often need to be randomized. The use of randomization as the standard way to design a medical study goes back to another deadly infectious disease: tuberculosis. In the early part of the 20th century, it was a scourge, and many doctors turned to gold-based treatments, to try and control it.

They turned out to be toxic and ineffective. That study, published in the British Medical Journal in , became the basis for most modern medical research. The study Trump and others have touted was anything but randomized.

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Instead, Covid patients were treated with either hydroxychloroquine or the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, an antibiotic also known as Zithromax, at a hospital in Marseille, France. But for doctors on the front lines, particularly in New York City, where hospitals are becoming overwhelmed and where there are many patients on ventilators, the drugs could be an immediate option. Perhaps as a result, there are shortages cropping up for patients with lupus and other diseases who need the drug. The University of California, San Francisco , and the University of Washington both recommend hydroxycholoroquine for very sick Covid patients.

The qualms about the French study extend to two other studies of antiviral drugs as potential Covid treatments. A study of 80 patients given the Japanese flu drug favipriavir, which is not approved in the U. A small randomized trial of HIV medicines, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, found no overall benefit, but hints that it helped some subgroups of coronavirus patients. For drug development, getting results so soon is blindingly fast. For doctors on the ground and patients who are struggling to breathe, it is agonizingly slow.

Republish this article. Efficacy is not assessed until Phases II and III, where the drug is tested, in double-blind fashion, against a placebo control. What the heck does Trump know about medicine? He sounds like an idiot. The Pres is right on this one, we need to follow the French protocol and give very sick people a chance to live. I agree with Thomas laValley. Are they cheerleading for the FDA? Because these are given in tablet form and there is a five day regimen hopefully wider usage on positive tested patients providing informed consent will build the case for this regimen as well as remdesivir.

While these medications effectively control RA, studies are needed to determine their long-term safety. Social, educational and demographic characteristics of different macro-regions of Brazil, including difficulties in the administration of SC medications for certain patients and their families, as well as the absence of infusion centers for the administration of IV medications in certain places, may determine the choice of biologic DMARDs. Public or private drug dispensing and infusion centers should inform patients and families about the appropriate conditions for each medication or send them directly to the infusion sites to avoid losses in treatment efficacy.

It is recommended that these drugs be used as indicated and monitored by a rheumatologist 78 D. Is the introduction of biologic therapy with anti-TNF drugs such as adalimumab, certolizumab, etanercept, infliximab and golimumab effective and safe for RA patients? TNF is a potent inflammatory cytokine that is expressed in large amounts in the serum and synovial fluid of RA patients.

TNF inhibition has been shown to be an effective and rapid method of controlling disease activity 79 D. In terms of effectiveness, no evidence suggests the superiority of any of the 5 anti-TNF agents approved in Brazil for RA treatment 55,56 B. There was also a reduction in radiographic progression and functional improvement HAQ with the combination therapy, with no increase in adverse events A B.

Certolizumab pegol is a Fab fragment of a humanized, highaffinity anti-TNF antibody linked to two polyethylene glycol molecules. It is prescribed for SC use at a biweekly dose of mg during weeks 0, 2 and 4 and at a dose of mg every two weeks or mg every four weeks thereafter 30,31,37 A. There were no differences in response or adverse events between the certolizumab doses A.


There was also evidence of a positive impact on patient quality of life 30 A. Etanercept is a fusion protein composed of the TNF soluble receptor that binds more strongly to the Fc region than to the IgG. This therapy is prescribed at a weekly dose of 50 mg SC 36 A 43,45,59 B. This effect was maintained after 24 months of follow-up 45 B.

At a month follow-up, there was less treatment discontinuation due to lack of efficacy in patients undergoing etanercept treatment NNT: 2 , and the benefits were permanently sustained. There was, however, an increase in infectious adverse events and adverse events from local application B. After 52 weeks, remission remained evident in Additionally, after 52 weeks, there was a reduction in radiological lesion progression in these patients B. Larger doses add little therapeutic benefit and increase the risk of infectious complications; thus, this approach should be avoided in RA treatment 27,58 B 36,38,44 A.

There was no difference in response between the two infliximab dose regimens. There was no difference in adverse events related to infliximab treatment, regardless of the dose A. No difference in efficacy was observed between the two treatment regimens. There were increases in the rates of serious adverse events of 3. There were no increases in adverse events for this combination over monotherapy 44 B.

Can chloroquine really help treat coronavirus patients? | Science | The Guardian

However, there was an increase in adverse events and serious adverse events with the mg dose of golimumab compared to the 50 mg dose A. After a week follow-up, there were no differences with respect to monotherapy, although the clinical response and remission rates were maintained 43 B. There were no differences in adverse events and serious adverse events between the combination of MTX and golimumab and MTX monotherapy A.

There were no differences in adverse events between the various forms of treatment A. Adverse events and contraindications of TNF blockers.


These drugs increase the risk of infections, especially in the first year of use including serious infections and those caused by intracellular pathogens such as tuberculosis bacillus, listeria, histoplasma, atypical mycobacteria, legionella cardiac dysfunction, demyelinating diseases, autoimmune phenomena autoantibody production , cutaneous vasculitis, interstitial lung disease and a possible increased risk of lymphoma 37,39 A 61,62 B. Human anti-chimeric antibodies HACA can occur in response to all drugs in this class, but their effects on treatment efficacy are uncertain 63,64 B.

Anti-TNF drugs are contraindicated in women who are pregnant or breastfeeding; in patients with class III and IV congestive heart failure, according to the New York Heart Association classification; in patients with infection; or in those who have a high risk of infection development chronic ulcers of the lower limbs, septic arthritis in the past 12 months , recurrent pulmonary infections, multiple sclerosis, or current or previous cancer diagnoses less than five years.

Patients should be carefully monitored for the possible emergence of signs of infection, which should be treated promptly and immediately 39 A 61,62 B. There may be an increased risk of serious adverse events and local reactions to treatment administration.

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Is rituximab a safe and effective alternative treatment for RA patients? It is indicated for patients with moderate to severe active RA who failed to respond to anti-TNF agents. Rituximab is administered at a dose of 1, mg in two IV infusions at day intervals. Each infusion is preceded by a dose of mg of IV methylprednisolone 60 minutes before the rituximab, as well as 1 g of paracetamol and antihistamine to decrease the severity and frequency of infusion reactions A 86 C.

Given the severity of the condition, it should be noted that reports have linked the occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy to rituximab use C. It is important to stress that there might be a delay of months before the onset of symptomatic improvement A. Should the disease reactivate, individuals with good treatment responses can be subjected to new courses of rituximab at intervals of no less than six months A 86 C.

Infectious complications may occur, as well as interstitial pneumonia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia A 86 C. There were also increases in functional response HAQ , and there were no increases in adverse events A. There was no increase in adverse events 82 A. There were no differences in adverse events A. A greater number of patients did not require additional treatment for 48 months, due to the positive effects on functional capacity NNT: 4 A. There were no differences in the numbers of adverse events A.

Is tocilizumab proven for use in RA treatment? Tocilizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the IL-6 receptor, thus inhibiting the biological effects of IL 6. The incidence of infections and serious infections with tocilizumab is equivalent to that of other biologic agents. Tocilizumab can cause dose-dependent adverse events such as neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated transaminase levels. There may even be elevated levels of total and low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol, as well as an increased risk of infections 87,88 A 96 B. Tocilizumab should be avoided in patients who have a greater risk of bowel perforation and those with diverticular disease of the colon 89 A.

There were significant functional improvements of The clinical response rates were 6. Disease remission rates were There were no differences in mild to moderate adverse events between the two forms of treatment A. Tocilizumab was found to increase the clinical response rate ACR50 by The most common adverse reactions were infections, although no difference was observed between the two forms of treatment.

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  6. There was an increase of 3. There was an increase of There were significant functional improvements with both doses. The clinical response rates were There were no differences in the various adverse events, of which infection was the most frequent A. Tocilizumab is also effective in patients who are nonresponsive to anti-TNFs. There may be an increased risk of adverse events.


    Is abatacept a treatment option for patients with RA, considering its safety and efficacy profile? Abatacept should be administered as an IV infusion over a minute period and should be administered at a dose of mg to patients with a body weight less than 60 kg, mg to patients between kg and 1, mg to patients greater than kg.

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